This study applied structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to define the relations among trichotomous goals (mastery goals, performanceapproach goals, and performance-avoidance goals), self-efficacy, use of metacognitive self-regulation strategies, positive belief in seeking help, and help-avoidance behavior. Elementary school students (N = 105), who were learning English as a foreign language, were surveyed using five self-report scales. The structural equation model showed that self-efficacy led to the adoption of mastery goals but discouraged the adoption of performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals. Furthermore, mastery goals increased the use of metacognitive self-regulation strategies, whereas performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals reduced their use. Mastery goals encouraged positive belief in help-seeking, but performance-avoidance goals decreased such belief. Finally, performance-avoidance goals directly led to help-avoidance behavior, whereas positive belief assumed a critical role in reducing help-avoidance. The established structural equation model illuminated the potential causal relations among these variables for the young learners in this study.
|頁（從 - 到）||157-173|
|期刊||Perceptual and Motor Skills|
|出版狀態||Published - 2012 二月 1|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Sensory Systems