A series of "abnormal" NHC ligand precursors based on imidazopyridines and their corresponding NHC-palladium diiodide complexes were prepared. Our study included the first report on a palladium complex with an abnormal NHC ligand derived from imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine. DFT calculation on the free ligands confirmed the higher electron-donating properties of the abnormal NHC ligands than their normal NHC isomers. The structural properties of all the complexes were studied in detail by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies, revealing that, in general, Pd-carbene bond distances in palladium complexes with abnormal NHCs were longer than those in their isomers with normal NHCs. A significant trans influence is observed in the palladium complexes with abnormal NHC ligands. But in the complexes with normal NHC ligands, both Pd-carbene and Pd-N bond distances are short. Catalytic studies revealed that the palladium complexes were very efficient in catalyzing direct C-H arylation between 1,2-dimethylimidazole and aryl halides using a low Pd loading of 0.5 mol %. The difference in catalytic activity between the normal and abnormal isomers is, however, small.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry