Thermal transport of nanoporous gallium nitride for photonic applications

Taofei Zhou, Cheng Zhang, Rami Elafandy, Ge Yuan, Zhen Deng, Kanglin Xiong, Fang Ming Chen, Yen-Kuang Kuo, Ke Xu, Jung Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Recently, nanoporous (NP) GaN has emerged as a promising photonic material in the III-N family. Due to its attractive properties, such as its large refractive index contrast and perfect lattice matching with GaN, as well as its good electrical conductivity, photonic components and devices involving NP GaN have been successfully demonstrated. However, further development of high-performance NP GaN based electrically injected devices, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and edge emitting lasers, requires efficient heat dissipation. Therefore, in this paper, we study thermal conductivity (TC) of NP GaN, especially when incorporated into a practical distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in a VCSEL device. Through an effective medium model, we study the theoretical effect of NP GaN morphological properties over its TC. We then experimentally measure the TC of NP GaN, with different porosities and pore wall thicknesses, which shows a high agreement with the theoretical model. We also fabricate actual NP GaN DBRs and study the large tunability and interdependence among their TC (1-24 W/m K), refractive index (0.1-1.0), and electrical conductivity (100-2000 S/m) compared to other conventional DBRs. Finally, we perform a finite-element simulation of the heat dissipation within NP GaN-VCSELs, revealing their superior thermal dissipation compared to dielectric DBR based VCSELs. In this regard, this study lays the foundation for nanoscale thermal engineering of NP GaN optoelectronic and photonic devices and paves the way for their successful commercialization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number155106
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume125
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Apr 21

Fingerprint

gallium nitrides
surface emitting lasers
thermal conductivity
photonics
cavities
Bragg reflectors
refractivity
porosity
cooling
electrical resistivity
commercialization
optoelectronic devices
dissipation
engineering
lasers
simulation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Zhou, T., Zhang, C., Elafandy, R., Yuan, G., Deng, Z., Xiong, K., ... Han, J. (2019). Thermal transport of nanoporous gallium nitride for photonic applications. Journal of Applied Physics, 125(15), [155106]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5083151
Zhou, Taofei ; Zhang, Cheng ; Elafandy, Rami ; Yuan, Ge ; Deng, Zhen ; Xiong, Kanglin ; Chen, Fang Ming ; Kuo, Yen-Kuang ; Xu, Ke ; Han, Jung. / Thermal transport of nanoporous gallium nitride for photonic applications. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 2019 ; Vol. 125, No. 15.
@article{73677c85678b42e6b73218eb1db85c98,
title = "Thermal transport of nanoporous gallium nitride for photonic applications",
abstract = "Recently, nanoporous (NP) GaN has emerged as a promising photonic material in the III-N family. Due to its attractive properties, such as its large refractive index contrast and perfect lattice matching with GaN, as well as its good electrical conductivity, photonic components and devices involving NP GaN have been successfully demonstrated. However, further development of high-performance NP GaN based electrically injected devices, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and edge emitting lasers, requires efficient heat dissipation. Therefore, in this paper, we study thermal conductivity (TC) of NP GaN, especially when incorporated into a practical distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in a VCSEL device. Through an effective medium model, we study the theoretical effect of NP GaN morphological properties over its TC. We then experimentally measure the TC of NP GaN, with different porosities and pore wall thicknesses, which shows a high agreement with the theoretical model. We also fabricate actual NP GaN DBRs and study the large tunability and interdependence among their TC (1-24 W/m K), refractive index (0.1-1.0), and electrical conductivity (100-2000 S/m) compared to other conventional DBRs. Finally, we perform a finite-element simulation of the heat dissipation within NP GaN-VCSELs, revealing their superior thermal dissipation compared to dielectric DBR based VCSELs. In this regard, this study lays the foundation for nanoscale thermal engineering of NP GaN optoelectronic and photonic devices and paves the way for their successful commercialization.",
author = "Taofei Zhou and Cheng Zhang and Rami Elafandy and Ge Yuan and Zhen Deng and Kanglin Xiong and Chen, {Fang Ming} and Yen-Kuang Kuo and Ke Xu and Jung Han",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1063/1.5083151",
language = "English",
volume = "125",
journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
issn = "0021-8979",
publisher = "American Institute of Physics Publising LLC",
number = "15",

}

Zhou, T, Zhang, C, Elafandy, R, Yuan, G, Deng, Z, Xiong, K, Chen, FM, Kuo, Y-K, Xu, K & Han, J 2019, 'Thermal transport of nanoporous gallium nitride for photonic applications', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 125, no. 15, 155106. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5083151

Thermal transport of nanoporous gallium nitride for photonic applications. / Zhou, Taofei; Zhang, Cheng; Elafandy, Rami; Yuan, Ge; Deng, Zhen; Xiong, Kanglin; Chen, Fang Ming; Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Xu, Ke; Han, Jung.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 125, No. 15, 155106, 21.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Thermal transport of nanoporous gallium nitride for photonic applications

AU - Zhou, Taofei

AU - Zhang, Cheng

AU - Elafandy, Rami

AU - Yuan, Ge

AU - Deng, Zhen

AU - Xiong, Kanglin

AU - Chen, Fang Ming

AU - Kuo, Yen-Kuang

AU - Xu, Ke

AU - Han, Jung

PY - 2019/4/21

Y1 - 2019/4/21

N2 - Recently, nanoporous (NP) GaN has emerged as a promising photonic material in the III-N family. Due to its attractive properties, such as its large refractive index contrast and perfect lattice matching with GaN, as well as its good electrical conductivity, photonic components and devices involving NP GaN have been successfully demonstrated. However, further development of high-performance NP GaN based electrically injected devices, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and edge emitting lasers, requires efficient heat dissipation. Therefore, in this paper, we study thermal conductivity (TC) of NP GaN, especially when incorporated into a practical distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in a VCSEL device. Through an effective medium model, we study the theoretical effect of NP GaN morphological properties over its TC. We then experimentally measure the TC of NP GaN, with different porosities and pore wall thicknesses, which shows a high agreement with the theoretical model. We also fabricate actual NP GaN DBRs and study the large tunability and interdependence among their TC (1-24 W/m K), refractive index (0.1-1.0), and electrical conductivity (100-2000 S/m) compared to other conventional DBRs. Finally, we perform a finite-element simulation of the heat dissipation within NP GaN-VCSELs, revealing their superior thermal dissipation compared to dielectric DBR based VCSELs. In this regard, this study lays the foundation for nanoscale thermal engineering of NP GaN optoelectronic and photonic devices and paves the way for their successful commercialization.

AB - Recently, nanoporous (NP) GaN has emerged as a promising photonic material in the III-N family. Due to its attractive properties, such as its large refractive index contrast and perfect lattice matching with GaN, as well as its good electrical conductivity, photonic components and devices involving NP GaN have been successfully demonstrated. However, further development of high-performance NP GaN based electrically injected devices, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and edge emitting lasers, requires efficient heat dissipation. Therefore, in this paper, we study thermal conductivity (TC) of NP GaN, especially when incorporated into a practical distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in a VCSEL device. Through an effective medium model, we study the theoretical effect of NP GaN morphological properties over its TC. We then experimentally measure the TC of NP GaN, with different porosities and pore wall thicknesses, which shows a high agreement with the theoretical model. We also fabricate actual NP GaN DBRs and study the large tunability and interdependence among their TC (1-24 W/m K), refractive index (0.1-1.0), and electrical conductivity (100-2000 S/m) compared to other conventional DBRs. Finally, we perform a finite-element simulation of the heat dissipation within NP GaN-VCSELs, revealing their superior thermal dissipation compared to dielectric DBR based VCSELs. In this regard, this study lays the foundation for nanoscale thermal engineering of NP GaN optoelectronic and photonic devices and paves the way for their successful commercialization.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065604499&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85065604499&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1063/1.5083151

DO - 10.1063/1.5083151

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85065604499

VL - 125

JO - Journal of Applied Physics

JF - Journal of Applied Physics

SN - 0021-8979

IS - 15

M1 - 155106

ER -

Zhou T, Zhang C, Elafandy R, Yuan G, Deng Z, Xiong K et al. Thermal transport of nanoporous gallium nitride for photonic applications. Journal of Applied Physics. 2019 Apr 21;125(15). 155106. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5083151