The reproductive development of the red alga Actinotrichia fragilis (Galaxauraceae, Nemaliales)

Wei Lung Wang, Young Meng Chiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The reproductive structures in Actinotrichia fragilis (Forsskål) Børgesen are described, including the first report of the structure and development of the carpogonial branch and cystocarp for the genus. Tetrasporangia usually arise in a terminal position on assimilatory filaments; occasionally they are formed laterally and in a secund manner. In male thalli, conceptacles are initiated from the apical pit of a thallus branch. Filaments bearing spermatangia issue from the inner face of the conceptacle wall. In female thalli, a carpogonial branch consists of a carpogonium, hypogynous cell and basal cell. Carpogonial branches may arise in two ways, either replacing a vegetative branch or rarely as a third branch between vegetative dichotomous branches. Before fertilization, the hypogynous cell divides to produce four cells. Subsequently, the basal cell produces branched filaments that eventually form the pericarp, which envelops the carpogonial branch and developing gonimoblast. After fertilization, the carpogonium divides transversely into two cells. The upper progeny cell retains its cytoplasmic connection to the trichogyne. The lower cell produces a lateral gonimoblast initial. Primary gonimoblast filaments form a compact pseudoparenchymatous mass at the base of the carposporophyte. Carposporangia are produced singly from the tips of the secondary gonimoblast filaments, which develop from the primary gonimoblast mass. Many simple or little-branched sterile paraphyses issue from the inner face of the pericarp and grow into the cavity. A comparison of the reproductive structures of Actinotrichia with those of the other genera of the Galaxauraceae suggests that the genus is closely related to Tricleocarpa Huisman et Borowitzka and Galaxaura Lamouroux.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-383
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Phycology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Dec 24

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aquatic Science
  • Plant Science

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