To evaluate the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) as a motivational model for physical activity self-management for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using path analysis. Participants: One hundred ninety-five individuals with MS were recruited from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society and a neurology clinic at a university teaching hospital in the Midwest. Outcome Measures: Outcome was measured by the Physical Activity Stages of Change Instrument, along with measures for nine predictors (severity, action self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, risk perception, perceived barriers, intention, maintenance self-efficacy, action and coping planning, and recovery self-efficacy). Results: The respecified HAPA physical activity model fit the data relatively well (goodness-of-fit index = .92, normed fit index = .91, and comparative fit index = .93) explaining 38% of the variance in physical activity. Recovery self-efficacy, action and coping planning, and perceived barriers directly contributed to the prediction of physical activity. Outcome expectancy significantly influenced intention and the relationship between intention and physical activity is mediated by action and coping planning. Action self-efficacy, maintenance self-efficacy, and recovery self-efficacy directly or indirectly affected physical activity. Severity of MS and action self-efficacy had an inverse relationship with perceived barriers and perceived barriers influenced physical activity. Conclusions: Empirical support was found for the proposed HAPA model of physical activity for people with MS. The HAPA model appears to provide useful information for clinical rehabilitation and health promotion interventions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health