The development of self-affliction tendency scal

Pei Yu Wu, Ching Wen Lin, Luo Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of the study was to develop the Self-affliction Tendency Scale (SATS) for college students. Based on phenomenon observed and literature reviewed, the authors proposed a framework for studying the concept of “self-affliction” as a tendency of self-destruction in various aspects ranging from cognitive, emotional, behavioral, to interpersonal relationships. The SATS is comprised of 30 items in 7-point Likert-type scale and can be completed between 5 to 10 minutes. It included four dimensions: existential alienation, dysfunction, poor self-care, and contradictory relationship. The values of reliability and validity on the SATS were calculated from a sample of 2,679, all of which were Taiwanese undergraduate college students from ten universities. Accordingly, the internal consistency reliability (N = 172~1,050), test-retest reliability (N = 66 and 98), construct validity (N = 470), cross-validation (N = 519), and criterion-related validity of the developed scale (N = 172~1,050) were evaluated. Seven tests were conducted to relate the 4-dimension model to various psychological issues in the Taiwanese society. These issues included self-esteem, mental health, internet addiction, loneliness, depression, and happiness. Descriptive statistics, including means, variances, and item-total correlations, were computed for each item. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, one-factor repeated measures analysis of variance, and discriminant analysis were conducted to differentiate the similarity and difference between variables. Internal consistency of the scores on SES and its subscales was estimated by Cronbach’s coefficient alpha (full scale was .94~.96, subscale of existential alienation was .81~.86, subscale of dysfunction was .93~.96, subscale of poor self-care was .76~.84, and subscale of contradictory relationship was .82~.90). Stability coefficient was based on 2 test-retest procedures (an interval of 2 weeks was .89, and an interval of 3 weeks was .72). Validation of the SATS was based on a 4-dimension model, followed by cross-validation on the calibration sample (N = 470) and validation sample (N = 519). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the model was well supported by observed data and the stability of the model was confirmed. The result had supported the scale structure. These evidences thus generally supported the 4-dimension self-affliction model. Applications of the SATS and the suggestions of future study were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-278
Number of pages26
JournalBulletin of Educational Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Education

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The development of self-affliction tendency scal'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this