Substance use has been observed throughout history and remains an urgent public health concern in many countries. In the United States alone, the cost of alcohol and other drug use is estimated to be greater than $240 billion per year (Martin, 2001). According to Janikowski, Cardoso, and Lee (2005), substance use is defined as experimental or casual consumption in which the individual exercises little control, whereas substance abuse is the maladaptive pattern of substance use, including excessive use, compulsions to use, and continued use despite negative consequences. Excessive and prolonged use of substances may result in addiction. Substance dependence is the compulsive use of a substance accompanied by increasing amounts needed to achieve the desired effect, despite negative consequences. Substance abuse and dependence are major national health crises with wide-ranging consequences (Benshoff& Janikowski, 2000; Janikowski et al., 2005). Substance abuse and addiction dominate the individual's life, creating problems across the spectrum of physical, psychological, and social functioning (Janikowski et al., 2005). The prevalence rates for illicit drug use, marijuana use, and nonmedical use of a psychotherapeutic drug in the United States are reported to be 8.7, 6.6, and 2.8% respectively (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2011).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes