Although the proponents of game-based learning argue that educational games engage students and afford better learning outcomes, the impact of educational games on motivation and learning performance is still unclear. Research suggested that the addition of scaffolds in computer-supported environments may improve students' learning. Therefore, this study examined the effects of scaffolding on secondary students' individual and collaborative game-based learning. A total of 254 secondary school students from eight different classes participated in the study and they were randomly assigned to four conditions: (a) individual-control (IC), (b) individual-scaffold (IS), (c) collaborative-control (CC), and (d) collaborative-scaffold (CS). The results of the structural equation modeling revealed that scaffolding had an impact on students' motivation and learning performance. In addition, hard scaffolding moderated the relationship between soft scaffolding and students' learning performance. The results provided empirical supports for the use of collaborative game-based learning environments. However, in order to maximize the effects of collaborative game-based learning, hard scaffolds should also be introduced to guide students' learning experience. This study offers directions in designing scaffolding in game-based learning environments.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Human-Computer Interaction