Neuroendocrine responses of a crustacean host to viral infection: Effects of infection of white spot syndrome virus on the expression and release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii

Ling Jiun Lin, Yan Jhou Chen, Yun Shiang Chang, Chi-Ying Lee

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Abstract

The objectives of the present study were to characterize the changes in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) transcript and peptide levels in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a crustacean, Procambarus clarkii. After viral challenge, significant increase in virus load began at 24. h post injection (hpi) and the increase was much more substantial at 48 and 72. hpi. The hemolymph CHH levels rapidly increased after viral challenge; the increase started as early as 3. hpi and lasted for at least 2. d after the challenge. In contrast, the hemolymph glucose levels did not significantly changed over a 2 d period in the WSSV-infected animals. The CHH transcript and peptide levels in tissues were also determined. The CHH transcript levels in the eyestalk ganglia (the major site of CHH synthesis) of the virus-infected animals did not significantly change over a 2 d period and those in 2 extra-eyestalk tissues (the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia) significantly increased at 24 and 48. hpi. The CHH peptide levels in the eyestalk ganglia of the virus-infected animals significantly decreased at 24 and 48. hpi and those in the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia remained unchanged over a 2 d period. These data demonstrated a WSSV-induced increase in the release of CHH into hemolymph that is rapid in onset and lasting in duration. Changes in the CHH transcript and peptide levels implied that the WSSV-induced increase in hemolymph CHH levels primarily resulted from an enhanced release from the eyestalk ganglia, but the contribution of the 2 extra-eyestalk tissues to hemolymph pool of CHH increased as viral infection progressed. The combined patterns of change in the hemolymph glucose and CHH levels further suggest that the virus-enhanced CHH release would lead to higher glycolytic activity and elevated glucose mobilization presumably favorable for viral replication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-332
Number of pages6
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology
Volume164
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Feb 1

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White spot syndrome virus 1
Astacoidea
Virus Diseases
Viruses
Hemolymph
Ganglia
Infection
Injections
Peptides
Animals
Tissue
Glucose
crustacean hyperglycemic hormone
Thorax

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

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title = "Neuroendocrine responses of a crustacean host to viral infection: Effects of infection of white spot syndrome virus on the expression and release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii",
abstract = "The objectives of the present study were to characterize the changes in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) transcript and peptide levels in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a crustacean, Procambarus clarkii. After viral challenge, significant increase in virus load began at 24. h post injection (hpi) and the increase was much more substantial at 48 and 72. hpi. The hemolymph CHH levels rapidly increased after viral challenge; the increase started as early as 3. hpi and lasted for at least 2. d after the challenge. In contrast, the hemolymph glucose levels did not significantly changed over a 2 d period in the WSSV-infected animals. The CHH transcript and peptide levels in tissues were also determined. The CHH transcript levels in the eyestalk ganglia (the major site of CHH synthesis) of the virus-infected animals did not significantly change over a 2 d period and those in 2 extra-eyestalk tissues (the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia) significantly increased at 24 and 48. hpi. The CHH peptide levels in the eyestalk ganglia of the virus-infected animals significantly decreased at 24 and 48. hpi and those in the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia remained unchanged over a 2 d period. These data demonstrated a WSSV-induced increase in the release of CHH into hemolymph that is rapid in onset and lasting in duration. Changes in the CHH transcript and peptide levels implied that the WSSV-induced increase in hemolymph CHH levels primarily resulted from an enhanced release from the eyestalk ganglia, but the contribution of the 2 extra-eyestalk tissues to hemolymph pool of CHH increased as viral infection progressed. The combined patterns of change in the hemolymph glucose and CHH levels further suggest that the virus-enhanced CHH release would lead to higher glycolytic activity and elevated glucose mobilization presumably favorable for viral replication.",
author = "Lin, {Ling Jiun} and Chen, {Yan Jhou} and Chang, {Yun Shiang} and Chi-Ying Lee",
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T2 - Effects of infection of white spot syndrome virus on the expression and release of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii

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AU - Chen, Yan Jhou

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AU - Lee, Chi-Ying

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N2 - The objectives of the present study were to characterize the changes in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) transcript and peptide levels in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a crustacean, Procambarus clarkii. After viral challenge, significant increase in virus load began at 24. h post injection (hpi) and the increase was much more substantial at 48 and 72. hpi. The hemolymph CHH levels rapidly increased after viral challenge; the increase started as early as 3. hpi and lasted for at least 2. d after the challenge. In contrast, the hemolymph glucose levels did not significantly changed over a 2 d period in the WSSV-infected animals. The CHH transcript and peptide levels in tissues were also determined. The CHH transcript levels in the eyestalk ganglia (the major site of CHH synthesis) of the virus-infected animals did not significantly change over a 2 d period and those in 2 extra-eyestalk tissues (the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia) significantly increased at 24 and 48. hpi. The CHH peptide levels in the eyestalk ganglia of the virus-infected animals significantly decreased at 24 and 48. hpi and those in the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia remained unchanged over a 2 d period. These data demonstrated a WSSV-induced increase in the release of CHH into hemolymph that is rapid in onset and lasting in duration. Changes in the CHH transcript and peptide levels implied that the WSSV-induced increase in hemolymph CHH levels primarily resulted from an enhanced release from the eyestalk ganglia, but the contribution of the 2 extra-eyestalk tissues to hemolymph pool of CHH increased as viral infection progressed. The combined patterns of change in the hemolymph glucose and CHH levels further suggest that the virus-enhanced CHH release would lead to higher glycolytic activity and elevated glucose mobilization presumably favorable for viral replication.

AB - The objectives of the present study were to characterize the changes in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) transcript and peptide levels in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in a crustacean, Procambarus clarkii. After viral challenge, significant increase in virus load began at 24. h post injection (hpi) and the increase was much more substantial at 48 and 72. hpi. The hemolymph CHH levels rapidly increased after viral challenge; the increase started as early as 3. hpi and lasted for at least 2. d after the challenge. In contrast, the hemolymph glucose levels did not significantly changed over a 2 d period in the WSSV-infected animals. The CHH transcript and peptide levels in tissues were also determined. The CHH transcript levels in the eyestalk ganglia (the major site of CHH synthesis) of the virus-infected animals did not significantly change over a 2 d period and those in 2 extra-eyestalk tissues (the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia) significantly increased at 24 and 48. hpi. The CHH peptide levels in the eyestalk ganglia of the virus-infected animals significantly decreased at 24 and 48. hpi and those in the thoracic ganglia and cerebral ganglia remained unchanged over a 2 d period. These data demonstrated a WSSV-induced increase in the release of CHH into hemolymph that is rapid in onset and lasting in duration. Changes in the CHH transcript and peptide levels implied that the WSSV-induced increase in hemolymph CHH levels primarily resulted from an enhanced release from the eyestalk ganglia, but the contribution of the 2 extra-eyestalk tissues to hemolymph pool of CHH increased as viral infection progressed. The combined patterns of change in the hemolymph glucose and CHH levels further suggest that the virus-enhanced CHH release would lead to higher glycolytic activity and elevated glucose mobilization presumably favorable for viral replication.

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