ATP is required as a structural activator for the reversible epimerization of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to N-acetyl-d-mannosamine by N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 2-epimerase (AGE); however, the ATP-binding site on AGE has not been clearly identified. This study aimed to investigate the specific region of Anabaena sp. CH1 AGE (bAGE) that is required for ATP binding. In the absence of ATP, tryptic digest of bAGE resulted in the production of 2 segments of 17 and 26 kDa, while in the presence of 1 mM ATP, the enzyme was resistant to trypsin. ADP also displayed protective effects against trypsin digestion. A trypsin-mediated ATP-footprinting assay identified a deviant ATP-protected region, 156-GKYTK-160, which is located within the flexible loop of bAGE. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the loop region was performed, and both K151A and K160A variants greatly decreased the enzymatic activity as well as the ATP-binding ability of bAGE, indicating that residues K151 and K160 may be critical for ATP binding. This study demonstrated that the ATP-binding site (151-KDNPKGKYTK-160) of bAGE was a novel rather than a classical Walker motif A. This is the first ATP-binding site reported for AGEs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology