The emerging nanotechnology has attracted much attention with respect to its potential economic growth. Interdisciplinary collaboration is a key mechanism for accessing different domains technology and knowledge for developing nanotechnology commercialization opportunities. The need for effective inter-firm collaboration is of particular importance in emerging nanotechnology domains. Thus, the present study explores interfirm alliance networking behavior in nanotechnology firms to determine fully what types of factors drive interfirm nanotechnology alliance activities. In this study we proposed theoretical frameworks attempt to fill the gap in knowledge regarding emerging nanotechnology alliance behavior and to explore the alliance decisions driving inter-firm alliances that are grounded in deeper nanotechnology of interfirm alliances. The primary focus of nanotechnology alliance for nanotechnology-based firms confirms that interfirm alliances in nanotechnology are influenced directly by inter-firm R&D ties and by joint interactions among inter-firm R&D ties, network positions, and technological uncertainty. Specifically, we propose that a nanotechnology-based firm is highly likely to engage in alliances regarding decision-making activity. Using an original dataset of nanotechnology-based firms in the emerging nanotechnology alliance activity, we found that the joint effect of a position of high network centrality and a high level of technological uncertainty weaken inter-firm nanotechnology alliances.