The effects of water extracts from Cassia tora L. (WECT) treated with different degrees of roasting on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 were investigated via the comet assay without exogenous activation mixtures, such as S9 mix. WECT alone, at concentrations of 0.1-2 mg/mL, showed neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effect toward HepG2 cells. B[a]P-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells could be reduced by WECT in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the inhibitory effects of WECT on DNA damage were in the order unroasted (72%) > roasted at 150 °C (60%) > roasted at 250 °C (23%). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of HepG2 cells was effectively inhibited by WECT, and a similar trend of inhibition was observed in the order unroasted (64%) > roasted at 150 °C (42%) > roasted at 250 °C (18%). The activity of NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase was also decreased by unroasted and 150 °C-roasted samples (50% and 38%, respectively). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase activity was increased by treatment with unroasted (1.26-fold) and 150 °C-roasted (1.35-fold) samples at 1 mg/mL. In addition, the contents of anthraquinones (AQs) in WECT, including chrysophanol, emodin, and rhein, were decreased with increasing roasting temperature. Each of these AQs also demonstrated significant antigenotoxic activity in the comet assay. The inhibitory effects of chrysophanol, emodin, and rhein on B[a]P-mediated DNA damage in HepG2 cells were 78, 86, and 71%, respectively, at 100 μM. These findings suggested that the decreased antigenotoxicity of the roasted samples might be due to a reduction in their AQs content.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Food Science
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)