This study investigated the relationships between teachers' self-reported classroom goal structures, instructional self-perceptions, teaching efficacy, and perceptions of students' motivation in a developing East Asian nation. This study's participants were 404 teachers, across subject areas, in 14 high schools in an East Asian nation. Similar studies have been conducted in western nations, but these cannot be generalised to the East Asian cultural context without direct research. The following teacher perceptions correlated strongly with perceptions of student motivation: learning goal orientations; student ability; instrumentality of instruction; and high teaching self-efficacy. Among these related factors, learning goals and ability emerged as the strongest predictors of perceived student motivation. Teachers interviewed reported that their students' motivation is primarily extrinsic and performance-oriented, influenced by external factors, predominantly exam pressure and social expectations. These findings have important implications for teacher education and practice, and for school policy and educational reform.
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