Generalized scheme based on octagon-shaped shell for data hiding in steganographic applications

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5 Citations (Scopus)


The exploiting modification direction scheme is a well-known data hiding method because of its high payload and low distortion. Its most criticized drawback is that the secret data must be converted to a non-binary numeral system before the embedding procedure. To overcome this drawback, one study proposed a turtle shell-based scheme for data hiding, in which a reference matrix was constructed based on a hexagon-shaped shell to embed three secret bits into each pixel group of a pair of pixels of the cover image. In a subsequent work, the embedding capacity was increased by using an octagon-shaped shell instead of a hexagon-shaped shell in the reference matrix. The above scheme was extended by utilizing a regular octagon-shaped shell in the reference matrix to reduce the distortion of the worst case. In another approach, the payload of the octagon-shaped-shell-based data hiding scheme was maximized by searching for the appropriate width and height of the octagon. In this study, we generalize the data hiding scheme based on an octagon-shaped shell so that the above-mentioned four schemes can be regarded as specific cases of the proposed method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number760
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Mathematics(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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