Generalize the EMD scheme on an n-dimensional hypercube with maximum payload

Hui Shih Leng, Hsien Wen Tseng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Data hiding is concerned with hiding secret data in cover media without raising suspicion about the existence of such information. In 2006, Zhang and Wang proposed a novel efficient steganographic method by exploiting modification direction (EMD). The EMD scheme provides little distortion and good stego-image quality. Then Kieu and Chang improved the EMD scheme by using eight modification directions for embedding more secret data at a time, and achieves payload with 4.5 bpp. In this study, a generalize EMD scheme is proposed based on an n-dimensional hypercube. It provides more higher payload. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves payload with 4.75 bpp, which is better than any other published works while keeps good visual quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18363-18377
Number of pages15
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul 15

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Media Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications

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