The ability to translate between representations is important for students’ conceptual learning. In this paper, students’ processes of translation between different representations are investigated in the topic of torque and rotation. Specifically, a test of representational translation was developed and implemented in order to investigate student performance on each translation type and to explore the critical factors contributing to successful translations. The results reveal that translations between tables and other representations are relatively difficult, and success rate changes when direction of translation is reversed. Furthermore, force diagrams and mathematic symbols/equations are essential intermediary representations that contribute significantly to successful translations.
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