Doping against the native propensity of MoS 2: Degenerate hole doping by cation substitution

Joonki Suh, Tae Eon Park, Der-Yuh Lin, Deyi Fu, Joonsuk Park, Hee Joon Jung, Yabin Chen, Changhyun Ko, Chaun Jang, Yinghui Sun, Robert Sinclair, Joonyeon Chang, Sefaattin Tongay, Junqiao Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

286 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) draw much attention as the key semiconducting material for two-dimensional electrical, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices. For most of these applications, both n- and p-type materials are needed to form junctions and support bipolar carrier conduction. However, typically only one type of doping is stable for a particular TMD. For example, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) is natively an n-type presumably due to omnipresent electron-donating sulfur vacancies, and stable/controllable p-type doping has not been achieved. The lack of p-type doping hampers the development of charge-splitting p-n junctions of MoS 2 , as well as limits carrier conduction to spin-degenerate conduction bands instead of the more interesting, spin-polarized valence bands. Traditionally, extrinsic p-type doping in TMDs has been approached with surface adsorption or intercalation of electron-accepting molecules. However, practically stable doping requires substitution of host atoms with dopants where the doping is secured by covalent bonding. In this work, we demonstrate stable p-type conduction in MoS 2 by substitutional niobium (Nb) doping, leading to a degenerate hole density of μ3 × 10 19 cm -3 . Structural and X-ray techniques reveal that the Nb atoms are indeed substitutionally incorporated into MoS 2 by replacing the Mo cations in the host lattice. van der Waals p-n homojunctions based on vertically stacked MoS 2 layers are fabricated, which enable gate-tunable current rectification. A wide range of microelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices can be envisioned from the demonstrated substitutional bipolar doping of MoS 2 . From the miscibility of dopants with the host, it is also expected that the synthesis technique demonstrated here can be generally extended to other TMDs for doping against their native unipolar propensity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6976-6982
Number of pages7
JournalNano Letters
Volume14
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 10

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Cations
Substitution reactions
Positive ions
Doping (additives)
substitutes
cations
transition metals
Transition metals
Niobium
optoelectronic devices
Magnetoelectronics
conduction
niobium
Optoelectronic devices
molybdenum disulfides
homojunctions
rectification
Atoms
p-n junctions
microelectronics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Suh, Joonki ; Park, Tae Eon ; Lin, Der-Yuh ; Fu, Deyi ; Park, Joonsuk ; Jung, Hee Joon ; Chen, Yabin ; Ko, Changhyun ; Jang, Chaun ; Sun, Yinghui ; Sinclair, Robert ; Chang, Joonyeon ; Tongay, Sefaattin ; Wu, Junqiao. / Doping against the native propensity of MoS 2 : Degenerate hole doping by cation substitution. In: Nano Letters. 2014 ; Vol. 14, No. 12. pp. 6976-6982.
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abstract = "Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) draw much attention as the key semiconducting material for two-dimensional electrical, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices. For most of these applications, both n- and p-type materials are needed to form junctions and support bipolar carrier conduction. However, typically only one type of doping is stable for a particular TMD. For example, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) is natively an n-type presumably due to omnipresent electron-donating sulfur vacancies, and stable/controllable p-type doping has not been achieved. The lack of p-type doping hampers the development of charge-splitting p-n junctions of MoS 2 , as well as limits carrier conduction to spin-degenerate conduction bands instead of the more interesting, spin-polarized valence bands. Traditionally, extrinsic p-type doping in TMDs has been approached with surface adsorption or intercalation of electron-accepting molecules. However, practically stable doping requires substitution of host atoms with dopants where the doping is secured by covalent bonding. In this work, we demonstrate stable p-type conduction in MoS 2 by substitutional niobium (Nb) doping, leading to a degenerate hole density of μ3 × 10 19 cm -3 . Structural and X-ray techniques reveal that the Nb atoms are indeed substitutionally incorporated into MoS 2 by replacing the Mo cations in the host lattice. van der Waals p-n homojunctions based on vertically stacked MoS 2 layers are fabricated, which enable gate-tunable current rectification. A wide range of microelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices can be envisioned from the demonstrated substitutional bipolar doping of MoS 2 . From the miscibility of dopants with the host, it is also expected that the synthesis technique demonstrated here can be generally extended to other TMDs for doping against their native unipolar propensity.",
author = "Joonki Suh and Park, {Tae Eon} and Der-Yuh Lin and Deyi Fu and Joonsuk Park and Jung, {Hee Joon} and Yabin Chen and Changhyun Ko and Chaun Jang and Yinghui Sun and Robert Sinclair and Joonyeon Chang and Sefaattin Tongay and Junqiao Wu",
year = "2014",
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Suh, J, Park, TE, Lin, D-Y, Fu, D, Park, J, Jung, HJ, Chen, Y, Ko, C, Jang, C, Sun, Y, Sinclair, R, Chang, J, Tongay, S & Wu, J 2014, 'Doping against the native propensity of MoS 2: Degenerate hole doping by cation substitution', Nano Letters, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 6976-6982. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl503251h

Doping against the native propensity of MoS 2 : Degenerate hole doping by cation substitution. / Suh, Joonki; Park, Tae Eon; Lin, Der-Yuh; Fu, Deyi; Park, Joonsuk; Jung, Hee Joon; Chen, Yabin; Ko, Changhyun; Jang, Chaun; Sun, Yinghui; Sinclair, Robert; Chang, Joonyeon; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao.

In: Nano Letters, Vol. 14, No. 12, 10.12.2014, p. 6976-6982.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Doping against the native propensity of MoS 2

T2 - Degenerate hole doping by cation substitution

AU - Suh, Joonki

AU - Park, Tae Eon

AU - Lin, Der-Yuh

AU - Fu, Deyi

AU - Park, Joonsuk

AU - Jung, Hee Joon

AU - Chen, Yabin

AU - Ko, Changhyun

AU - Jang, Chaun

AU - Sun, Yinghui

AU - Sinclair, Robert

AU - Chang, Joonyeon

AU - Tongay, Sefaattin

AU - Wu, Junqiao

PY - 2014/12/10

Y1 - 2014/12/10

N2 - Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) draw much attention as the key semiconducting material for two-dimensional electrical, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices. For most of these applications, both n- and p-type materials are needed to form junctions and support bipolar carrier conduction. However, typically only one type of doping is stable for a particular TMD. For example, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) is natively an n-type presumably due to omnipresent electron-donating sulfur vacancies, and stable/controllable p-type doping has not been achieved. The lack of p-type doping hampers the development of charge-splitting p-n junctions of MoS 2 , as well as limits carrier conduction to spin-degenerate conduction bands instead of the more interesting, spin-polarized valence bands. Traditionally, extrinsic p-type doping in TMDs has been approached with surface adsorption or intercalation of electron-accepting molecules. However, practically stable doping requires substitution of host atoms with dopants where the doping is secured by covalent bonding. In this work, we demonstrate stable p-type conduction in MoS 2 by substitutional niobium (Nb) doping, leading to a degenerate hole density of μ3 × 10 19 cm -3 . Structural and X-ray techniques reveal that the Nb atoms are indeed substitutionally incorporated into MoS 2 by replacing the Mo cations in the host lattice. van der Waals p-n homojunctions based on vertically stacked MoS 2 layers are fabricated, which enable gate-tunable current rectification. A wide range of microelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices can be envisioned from the demonstrated substitutional bipolar doping of MoS 2 . From the miscibility of dopants with the host, it is also expected that the synthesis technique demonstrated here can be generally extended to other TMDs for doping against their native unipolar propensity.

AB - Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) draw much attention as the key semiconducting material for two-dimensional electrical, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices. For most of these applications, both n- and p-type materials are needed to form junctions and support bipolar carrier conduction. However, typically only one type of doping is stable for a particular TMD. For example, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) is natively an n-type presumably due to omnipresent electron-donating sulfur vacancies, and stable/controllable p-type doping has not been achieved. The lack of p-type doping hampers the development of charge-splitting p-n junctions of MoS 2 , as well as limits carrier conduction to spin-degenerate conduction bands instead of the more interesting, spin-polarized valence bands. Traditionally, extrinsic p-type doping in TMDs has been approached with surface adsorption or intercalation of electron-accepting molecules. However, practically stable doping requires substitution of host atoms with dopants where the doping is secured by covalent bonding. In this work, we demonstrate stable p-type conduction in MoS 2 by substitutional niobium (Nb) doping, leading to a degenerate hole density of μ3 × 10 19 cm -3 . Structural and X-ray techniques reveal that the Nb atoms are indeed substitutionally incorporated into MoS 2 by replacing the Mo cations in the host lattice. van der Waals p-n homojunctions based on vertically stacked MoS 2 layers are fabricated, which enable gate-tunable current rectification. A wide range of microelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic devices can be envisioned from the demonstrated substitutional bipolar doping of MoS 2 . From the miscibility of dopants with the host, it is also expected that the synthesis technique demonstrated here can be generally extended to other TMDs for doping against their native unipolar propensity.

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