This study examined the discriminant and criterion-related validity of achievement goals in predicting academic achievement. Analysis of 151 studies yielded 172 independent samples (N = 52,986) with correlations among achievement goals and between achievement goals and academic achievement. The discriminant validity of achievement goals in the 2-, 3-, and 4-factor achievement models was sound, as the correlations among achievement goals ranged from .00 to .38. Approach motivations were associated with higher academic achievement, and avoidance motivations were associated with lower academic achievement. The criterion-related validity of each achievement goal (r = -.13 to .13) and the validities for the 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models were low. Integrating the findings regarding the discriminant and criterion-related validity revealed the 4-factor model as the best choice to facilitate the understanding of learning outcomes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology