Development and initial validation of the preschooler gross motor quality scale

Shih Heng Sun, Yi Ching Zhu, Ching Lin Shih, Chien Hui Lin, Sheng K. Wu

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Motor skills have great impact on children in adapting to an environment and developing interpersonal interaction, cognition, and social behavior. Understanding what children can do and how they perform it is essential. Most motor tests seldom contain quality evaluation in the items or criteria. The purpose of this study was to develop and construct validity of the Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) that included 17 items in three subscales to evaluate the quality of fundamental motor skills for the preschooler. The study designed PGMQ items and subscales according to well-described procedures, and recruited 174 children, aged 3-6 (89 boys and 85 girls) from 17 kindergartens. Two independent evaluators who were unaware of each other's results evaluated all the children separately in their kindergartens using PGMQ standardized setting and procedures and Gross Motor Scales of Peabody Developmental Motor Scales II (PDMS-II). Results of this study found significant differences between different ages and genders (Wilks' Λ= 0.221, p< .001 and Wilks' Λ= 0.690, p< .001 respectively). Total scores and raw scores in three subscales of PGMQ increased as age increased. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed three factors, including locomotion, manipulative ability and balance to explain 51.06% of the variance. The correlations between PGMQ and PDMS-II subscales were moderate to high (r= 0.544-0.868, p< .01). The results showed satisfactory validity of PGMQ. PGMQ is useful to evaluate the development and quality of fundamental motor skills for the preschoolers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1187-1196
Number of pages10
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Nov

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

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