This study presents a framework that utilizes cognitive and motivational aspects of learning to design an adaptive scaffolding e-learning system. It addresses scaffolding processes and conditions for designing adaptive scaffolds. The features and effectiveness of this adaptive scaffolding e-learning system are discussed and evaluated. An experiment was conducted within the domain of velocity and acceleration. The results revealed that the adaptive scaffolding system appeals to students and promotes improved performances and motivational outcomes. Specifically, the results suggested that learners with lower levels of knowledge who possessed extrinsic motivation benefited the most from the adaptive scaffolds. The implications of the design guidelines for developing personalized, adaptive scaffolding e-learning systems are discussed, and future research directions are recommended.
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