High-intensity (107–108 A m−2) electron beams can be used to fabricate nanoscale pores. This approach enables real-time observation of nanopore drilling and precise control of the diameter of the nanopore. Nevertheless, it is not suitable for tuning the nanopore’s sidewall shape. In this study, we demonstrate the use of low-intensity electron beams to fabricate nanopores on a silicon nitride (SiNx) membrane. This technique allows the precise adjustment of the nanopore dimension and the shaping of its three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure. The 3D structures of the nanopore were evaluated by electron tomography, and series of oblique images were used in reconstructing the 3D images of nanopores using a weighted back-projection method. The sidewall shape of the nanopore was observed at different electron-beam conditions, and the formation mechanism was elucidated based on these results. The nanopore fabricated with this technique can be used as a template to develop electronics at the nanoscale based on which a quantum-dot device can be prepared with a simple evaporation process. The measured results show that the device can resolve well-defined electronic states that are characteristic for the behaviors of the quantum-dot device.
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